States of matter is of prime importance to physicists. Everyday elements
and compounds form three states of matter, however there are many other states,
less common but equally important.
The liquid-crystal state of certain compounds has the properties of solids as
well as liquids, and is the basis of electronic displays. More states are
obtained when the particles are lighter.
The electrons in metals and ceramics undergo a change due to which electricity
is conducted without dissipation.
Study States of matter for Preparation of IIT JEE AIEE at askiitians, with
several underlined topics and important examples. All provided to you by ex
IITians. States of matter as explained above is important both from exam as well
as research point of view for future reference.
This chapter besides being simple is very important too especially the
section dealing with Raoult’s Law , Colligative properties and Van’t Hoff
Factor.Colligative properties are those properties of solutions that depend on
the number of dissolved particles in solution, but not on the identities of the
solutes. For example, the freezing point of salt water is lower than that of
pure water, due to the presence of the salt dissolved in the water.
To a good approximation, it does not matter whether the salt dissolved in
water is sodium chloride or potassium nitrate; if the molar amounts of solute
are the same and the number of ions are the same, the freezing points will be
the same. For example, AlCl3 and K3PO4 would
exhibit essentially the same colligative properties, since each compound
dissolves to produce four ions per formula unit. The four commonly studied
colligative properties are freezing point depression, boiling point elevation,
vapor pressure lowering, and osmotic pressure. Since these properties yield
information on the number of solute particles in solution, one can use them to
obtain the molecular weight of the solute.